What is the Tectorial membrane spine?
The tectorial membrane (TM) is an extension of the posterior longitudinal ligament, connecting the dorsal aspect of the dens and the vertebral bodies of C2 and C3 to the clivus. Along with the alar ligament, it prevents anterior subluxation of the head on the cervical spine and limits flexion.
At which vertebral level does the PLL become the Tectorial membrane?
It extends from the back of the sacrum inferiorly and gradually broadens as it ascends. At the level of C2 (the axis) it spreads out and becomes the tectorial membrane that eventually inserts into the base of skull 1,2.
What is the function of the nuchal ligament?
The nuchal ligament limits forward flexion of the head and the cervical spine. It also serves as the attachment for some major muscles.
What movement does the atlanto occipital joint allow?
The principal movement at the atlantooccipital joint is flexion-extension. This movement permits nodding of the head, as seen when indicating approval (the “yes” movement).
Is all or PLL stronger?
The failure load and failure stress of the PLL tend to be higher than those of the ALL, but there are no statistically significant differences between them. These results imply that the PLL has better biomechanical properties as a stabilizer for cervical motion than the ALL in the lower cervical spine.
Is the PLL thinner and weaker in the thoracic spine?
The anterior longitudinal ligament is thicker and narrower in the thoracic than in cervical and lumbar regions. It is also relatively thicker and narrower on the vertebral bodies than in intervertebral symphyses.
What is the function of the ligamentum flavum?
The function of the ligamentum flavum is to maintain upright posture. It helps to preserve the normal curvature of the spine and to straighten the column after it has been flexed. However, the elasticity of the ligamentum flavum decreases with age, and this may be associated with hypertrophy and buckling.
Which ligaments support the function of the upper and lower cervical spine?
Three of the more important ligaments in the spine are the Ligamentum Flavum, Anterior Longitudinal Ligament and the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament….Primary Spinal Ligaments Include:
Where does the tectorial membrane attach to the spine?
Tectorial membrane of the spine. It joins the axis body to the clivus on the anterior half of the foramen magnum, and ascends as high as the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and laterally extends to the hypoglossal canal. Anteriorly lies the cruciform ligament. Spinal dura mater is firmly attached posteriorly, also serving as a ligament.
What is the tectorial membrane?
The tectorial membrane (TM) is an extension of the posterior longitudinal ligament, connecting the dorsal aspect of the dens and the vertebral bodies of C2 and C3 to the clivus.
Why is the tectorial membrane superior to the odontoid membrane?
The tectorial membrane was found to attach much more superiorly than previously described. We would propose that the tectorial membrane provides for a second line of defense, preventing the odontoid process from compressing the spinal cord and by doing so, secondarily limits movement of the craniocervical juncture.
Does the tectorial membrane limit cervical flexion?
The tectorial membrane does not limit cervical flexion per se but rather help to insure that the odontoid process does not impinge into the cervical canal. Lateral flexion is not found to be limited by this structure. Tectorial membrane injuries and REH are typically seen in young children who sustain a high-speed head and neck injury.