How is fetal cardiothoracic ratio calculated?
The CTR was calculated by dividing the cardiac diameter by the thoracic diameter. All ultrasound parameters including routine biometry and CTR were recorded and stored in the research database.
What is fetal cardiomegaly?
Fetal cardiomegaly (FC) refers to an enlarged fetal heart. It is variably defined with some sources stating the cut-off as a fetal cardio-thoracic circumference above two standard deviations 7.
What is the meaning of cardiothoracic ratio?
The cardiothoracic ratio is measured on a PA chest x-ray, and is the ratio of maximal horizontal cardiac diameter to maximal horizontal thoracic diameter (inner edge of ribs/edge of pleura). A normal measurement is 0.42-0.50.
What causes fetal cardiomegaly?
The causes of FC can be cardiac in origin, either structural , or functional abnormality [7, 8]. It can also be caused by fetal anemia  or fetal infection [10, 11].
What is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference?
Radiographic features The C/T circumference ratio should be always <0.5 throughout gestation. It slowly increases throughout gestation: ~11 weeks: 0.38.
What is fetal cardiac?
Fetal echocardiography is a test similar to an ultrasound. This exam allows your doctor to better see the structure and function of your unborn child’s heart. It’s typically done in the second trimester, between weeks 18 to 24. The exam uses sound waves that “echo” off the structures of the fetus’s heart.
What is increased cardiothoracic ratio?
Increased cardiothoracic ratio describes widening of the cardiac silhouette on a chest radiograph. This is only of use when making an assessment of a PA chest x-ray since the AP chest x-ray causes the artefactual magnification of the heart and the cardiothoracic ratio is altered.
What is the normal cardiac diameter?
Transverse cardiac diameters of 15.5cm for males and 14.5cm for females are considered as the normal upper limits respectively; An increase in the transverse cardiac diameter by 1.5cm on two consecutive chest radiographs taken at short intervals is considered abnormal, and a sign of cardiomegaly.
When is fetal echo necessary?
It is most often done during the second trimester of pregnancy. This is when a woman is about 18 to 24 weeks pregnant. The procedure is similar to that of a pregnancy ultrasound.
What is the average cardiothoracic ratio?
Thoracic width is measured by drawing vertical parallel lines down the inner aspect of the widest points of the rib cage, and measuring between them. The cardio-thoracic ratio can then be calculated. Here the CTR is approximately 15 : 33 (cm) and is therefore within the normal limit of 50%. The heart size should be assessed on every chest X-ray.
What is the fetal heart rate?
Your healthcare provider may do fetal heart monitoring during late pregnancy and labor. The average fetal heart rate is between 110 and 160 beats per minute. It can vary by 5 to 25 beats per minute. The fetal heart rate may change as your baby responds to conditions in your uterus.
What is cardiac ratio?
The cardiothoracic ratio is measured on a PA chest x-ray, and is the ratio of maximal horizontal cardiac diameter to maximal horizontal thoracic diameter (inner edge of ribs/edge of pleura). A normal measurement is 0.42-0.50. A measurement <0.42 is usually deemed to be pathologic.
What is fetal cardiac disease?
Fetal Circulation. The blood that flows through the fetus is actually more complicated than after the baby is born ( normal heart ). This is because the mother (the placenta) is doing the work that the baby’s lungs will do after birth. The placenta accepts the blood without oxygen from the fetus through blood vessels that leave the fetus