How does vitamin B12 help in the formation of red blood cells?
Erythropoiesis is the process in which new erythrocytes are produced. Deficiency of folate or vitamin B12 inhibits purine and thymidylate syntheses, impairs DNA synthesis, and causes erythroblast apoptosis, resulting in anemia from ineffective erythropoiesis.
What does vitamin B12 do for DNA synthesis?
Vitamin B12 is important for DNA synthesis and ensures structural stability of important regions of the chromosomes such as the centromeres and the subtelomeric DNA.
Does vitamin B12 increase homocysteine?
Vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency can cause the homocysteine level to rise, so folic acid levels also should be checked in patients with isolated hyperhomocysteinemia.
What is the relationship between folic acid and vitamin B12?
Folic acid works closely with vitamin B12 in making red blood cells and helps iron function properly in the body. Vitamin B9 works with vitamins B6 and B12 and other nutrients in controlling the blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine.
How does B12 affect red blood cell production?
Having vitamin B12 deficiency means that your body does not have enough of this vitamin. You need B12 to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen through your body. Not having enough B12 can lead to anemia, which means your body does not have enough red blood cells to do the job. This can make you feel weak and tired.
Which B vitamins are needed for red blood cell production?
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is a condition in which your body does not have enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack (deficiency) of vitamin B12. This vitamin is needed to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body.
How does B12 deficiency affect DNA synthesis?
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a cause of macrocytosis. Because DNA synthesis requires cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) as a cofactor, a deficiency of the vitamin leads to decreased DNA synthesis in the erythrocyte, thus resulting in macrocytosis.
Which B vitamin is critical for DNA synthesis and cell division?
Which B vitamin is critical for DNA synthesis and cell division? Folate (folic acid) is critical for DNA synthesis and cell division. Folate is naturally found in foods, especially leafy green vegetables, but is more easily absorbed in its synthetic form, folic acid.
Does vitamin B12 reduce homocysteine?
Supplementation with vitamin B12 decreases homocysteine and methylmalonic acid but also serum folate in patients with end-stage renal disease. Metabolism.
Which vitamins reduce homocysteine?
The good news: Homocysteine can be lowered easily and inexpensively with a trio of B vitamins — B6, B12, and folic acid.
What are the biochemical interrelationships between folate B12 and homocysteine?
… Vitamin B12 functions as an enzyme in the conversion of methylmalonic acid to succinyl-CoA and as a cofactor with folic acid in the methionine synthase reaction, which converts homocysteine into methionine . Folate supplementation has been effective in the prevention of neural tube defects [27,28]. …
Can you take vitamin B9 and B12 together?
Both folic acid and vitamin B12 are essential for health. But when taken together, these B vitamins may interact with each other. You shouldn’t take more than 1,000 micrograms (mcg.)
What is dihydrofolate reductase?
Dihydrofolate reductase is an enzyme that converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and is involved in purines and thymidylate synthesis. It is encoded by the human DHFR gene. Antifolate drugs, methotrexate (MTX) and trimetrexate, can tightly bind to DHFR and inhibit DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.
How is folic acid used to treat DHFR deficiency?
Folic acid should be avoided in the treatment of DHFR deficiency because DHFR constitutes the only enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of folic acid to dihydrofolate. Infants should be promptly supplemented with 5 to 10 mg/kg body weight of oral folinic acid given daily as a single dose.
How is folic acid converted from dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolic acid?
As folic acid is biochemically inactive, it is converted by dihydrofolate reductase to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate.
What is the crystal structure of chicken liver dihydrofolate reductase?
Crystal structure of chicken liver dihydrofolate reductase. PDB entry 8dfr Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.