# How can you differentiate between metabolic and respiratory acidosis?

## How can you differentiate between metabolic and respiratory acidosis?

The main difference between metabolic and respiratory acidosis is that the metabolic acidosis occurs due to the production of organic acids such as lactic acid and ketone bodies whereas the respiratory acidosis occurs when lungs have failed to remove excess carbon dioxide from the blood.

How does respiratory system compensate for metabolic acidosis?

The respiratory system compensates for metabolic acidosis by expelling CO2 at a faster rate (breathing rate increase). The respiratory system compensates for metabolic alkalosis by expelling CO2 at a slower rate (breathing rate decrease).

### Is respiratory acidosis compensated or uncompensated?

The metabolic system’s goal with compensation is to get the pH to the normal range. If the pH is not in the normal range, the metabolic system has not completed its job all the way, so the respiratory acidosis is only partially compensated.

What is compensated respiratory acidosis?

Compensated respiratory acidosis is typically the result of a chronic condition, the slow nature of onset giving the kidneys time to compensate. Common causes of respiratory acidosis include hypoventilation due to: Respiratory depression (sedatives, narcotics, CVA, etc.)

## When is metabolic acidosis compensated?

A simple rule for deciding whether the fall in Pco2 is appropriate for the degree of metabolic acidosis is that the Pco2 should be equal to the last two digits of the pH. For example, compensation is adequate if the Pco2 decreases to 28 when the pH is 7.28.

When is respiratory acidosis compensated?

Professionals

Disorder Expected compensation Correction factor
Acute respiratory acidosis Increase in [HCO3-]= ∆ PaCO2/10 ± 3
Chronic respiratory acidosis (3-5 days) Increase in [HCO3-]= 3.5(∆ PaCO2/10)
Metabolic alkalosis Increase in PaCO2 = 40 + 0.6(∆HCO3-)
Acute respiratory alkalosis Decrease in [HCO3-]= 2(∆ PaCO2/10)

### How do you know if metabolic acidosis is compensated?

If the pH is not within or close to the normal ranges, then a partial-compensation exists. If the pH is back within normal ranges then a full-compensation has occurred.

How is metabolic acidosis compensated?

Compensation for a metabolic acidosis is hyperventilation to decrease the arterial pCO2. This hyperventilation was first described by Kussmaul in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis in 1874. The metabolic acidosis is detected by both the peripheral and central chemoreceptors and the respiratory center is stimulated.

## What is respiratory and metabolic compensation?

Respiratory compensation for a primary metabolic disturbance: Alterations in alveolar ventilation occurs in response to primary metabolic acid-base disturbances because the body senses changes in pH with peripheral chemoreceptors. This begins within minutes to hours of an acute primary metabolic disturbance.

What medications can cause metabolic acidosis?

Metabolic acidosis produced by drugs and/or chemicals can be conveniently divided into those with an increase in the anion gap (anion gap = Na- (Cl + HCO3)) and those with a normal anion gap. The increase in the anion gap is due to the accumulation of unmeasured organic anions, such as lactate or ac …

### How does the body compensate for respiratory acidosis?

The kidneys compensate for a respiratory acidosis by tubular cells reabsorbing more HCO3 from the tubular fluid, collecting duct cells secreting more H+ and generating more HCO3, and ammoniagenesis leading to increased formation of the NH3 buffer. Compensated respiratory acidosis is typically the result of a chronic condition, the slow nature of onset giving the kidneys time to compensate.

What are the signs and symptoms of respiratory acidosis?

Sleepiness

• Fatigue
• Lethargy
• Confusion
• Coma
• Anxiety
• Psychosis