What is the most common complication of splenectomy?
Infections, particularly pulmonary and abdominal sepsis, constitute the majority of the complications. The mortality rate from postoperative sepsis is substantial. Atelectasis, pancreatitis/fistula, pulmonary embolism and bleeding at the operative site are also relatively common occurrences following splenic removal.
Why does a splenectomy lead to an increased risk of septicemia?
The spleen is a reticuloendothelial organ that facilitates opsonization and phagocytosis of pathogens, in addition to cellular maintenance. Splenectomy is associated with an impairment in immunoglobulin production, antibody-mediated clearance, and phagocytosis, leading to an increased risk of infection and sepsis.
What is a small Splenunculus?
Splenunculus, which is also called accessory spleen, refers to any of the small globular masses that are physiologically and histologically similar to the spleen. Splenunculi are typically round, with echogenicity and homogeneity similar to that of the normal spleen.
Which organism causes infection after splenectomy?
Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection is usually caused by the encapsulated bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis and more than half of those infected die.
Why does splenectomy cause infection?
When the spleen is no longer present (asplenia), IgG and C3b are still bound to bacteria, but they cannot be removed from the blood circulation due to the loss of the splenic macrophages. Hence the bacteria are free to cause infection.
How do you prevent an infection after splenectomy?
Strategies to prevent OPSI include education; vaccination against S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and influenza (annually); and daily antibiotics for at least 2 years postsplenectomy and emergency antibiotics in case of infection.
What is spleen Splenunculus?
An accessory spleen, also called a supernumerary spleen, a splenule, or a splenunculus, is a benign and asymptomatic condition in which splenic tissue is found outside the normal spleen.
Is Splenunculus harmful?
Multiple (accessory) spleens do not cause medical problems, and nothing is done about them. Rarely, accessory spleens may be confused with tumors.
Why are splenectomy patients at risk of infection?
Splenectomized patients are a significant infection risk, because the spleen is the largest accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the body . The spleen has an abundance of lymphoid tissue, including splenic macrophages that attack encapsulated organisms.
How do you prevent infection after splenectomy?
Most infections that occur after splenectomy can be avoided through the following measures:
- You should be immunised against the following. Pneumococcus.
- You will probably be advised to take low-dose antibiotics every day for life.
- Keep a course of full-strength broad-spectrum antibiotics handy.