What are surrogate endpoints in clinical trials?

What are surrogate endpoints in clinical trials?

In clinical trials, an indicator or sign used in place of another to tell if a treatment works. Surrogate endpoints include a shrinking tumor or lower biomarker levels.

What is the difference between surrogate and clinical endpoints?

Unlike clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints do not represent direct clinical benefit, but insteadpredict clinical benefit. For example, tumor shrinkage can be used as a surrogate endpoint for longer survival in clinical trials for drugs intended to treat some cancers.

Why do you think FDA has incorporated approving medications based on surrogate endpoints?

Why are surrogate endpoints important for medical product development? When a surrogate endpoint clearly predicts a beneficial effect through appropriate studies, its use generally allows for more efficient drug development programs.

What is an example of a surrogate endpoint?

In simple words, a surrogate endpoint is like a measurable indicator that can help us know what the real result is. One example of this is cholesterol levels and the risk of having a heart attack. Generally, a high level of cholesterol in the bloodstream indicates a greater risk of having a heart attack.

Is blood pressure a surrogate endpoint?

Background: Blood pressure is considered to be a leading example of a valid surrogate endpoint.

How do you validate a surrogate endpoint?

Validating a surrogate endpoint requires providing evidence based justifications, often from RCTs, that achievement effects from the surrogate endpoint reliably predicts achievement of clinically important effects on a clinically meaningful endpoint [1-6]. A good example is cholesterol.

Is overall survival a surrogate endpoint?

Background. Progression-free survival (PFS) is a surrogate endpoint widely used for overall survival (OS) in oncology. Validation of PFS as a surrogate must be done for each indication and each intervention.

What is a surrogate marker of disease?

Surrogate markers are defined as biomarkers which are able to predict clinical outcome [123]. In cancer chemotherapy, an easy to measure parameter which is predictive for disease-free or overall survival would be desirable. These markers should be prospectively validated in clinical trials.

What is a surrogate endpoint biomarker?

A surrogate endpoint has been defined as ‘a biomarker intended to substitute for a clinical endpoint’, the latter being ‘a characteristic or variable that reflects how a patient feels, functions, or survives'[4].

What is an endpoint FDA?

A clinical trial’s “endpoints” are measurements of what happens to people in the trial. When a trial is intended to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new medical product or a new use of an approved product, its endpoints usually measure benefit.

What is a surrogate endpoint Mcq?

A surrogate endpoint is “a laboratory measure or a physical sign that is intended to be used as a substitute for a clinically meaningful endpoint” [3].

What is a surrogate measure?

In clinical trials, a surrogate endpoint (or surrogate marker) is a measure of effect of a specific treatment that may correlate with a real clinical endpoint but does not necessarily have a guaranteed relationship.