How physical to virtual translations works in Linux?

How physical to virtual translations works in Linux?

Linux divides the virtual address space into two: the lower portion is used for user processes, and there is a different virtual to physical mapping for each process. The upper portion is used for the kernel, and the mapping is the same even when switching between different user processes.

How is a virtual address converted to a physical address?

There are two ways to convert a virtual address to a physical address: by using the ! vtop extension, and by using the ! pte extension. For an overview of virtual address in Windows, see Virtual address spaces.

What is virtual address in Linux?

In Linux each process has its virtual address space (e.g. 4 GB in case of 32 bit system, wherein 3GB is reserved for process and 1 GB for kernel). This virtual addressing mechanism helps isolating the address space of each process. This is understandable in case of process since there are many processes.

Which call we can use to get the virtual address in Linux kernel?

kmap() creates a mapping in kernel for an arbitrary physical page (can be from highmem) and returns a virtual address that can be used to directly reference the page.

How do I find physical and virtual memory in Linux?

  1. cat Command to Show Linux Memory Information.
  2. free Command to Display the Amount of Physical and Swap Memory.
  3. vmstat Command to Report Virtual Memory Statistics.
  4. top Command to Check Memory Use.
  5. htop Command to Find Memory Load of Each Process.

Does a PC point to virtual address or physical address?

It depends. If you’re writing a application that will run on top of a operating system, that is, in user mode and the operating system uses virtual memory, it will point to a virtual address (or rather, it will point to a physical address but not the same physical address that will in fact be used).

What is physical address and virtual address?

Physical addresses refer to hardware addresses of physical memory. Virtual addresses refer to the virtual store viewed by the process. only a portion of the address space that processes do use is loaded into physical memory at a time.

What is physical address example?

Physical address means a person’s street, street number, and municipality. Sample 1. Sample 2. Sample 3. Physical address means a unit-specific building or house number and street name and not a post office box or commercial alternative to a post office box.

How do I find physical address in Linux?


  1. Open a terminal and use the ifconfig command. The MAC address will be listed next to HWaddr.
  2. If your Linux OS does not have the ifconfig command, you may also use the ip addr command.

How to assign virtual IP address in Linux?

DNS1 and DNS2

  • How to ACESS the physical address from Linux kernel space?

    ioremap (How to acess the physical address from linux kernel space?) ioremap performs a platform specific sequence of operations to make bus memory CPU accessible via the readb/readw/readl/writeb/ writew/writel functions and the other mmio helpers. The returned address is not guaranteed to be usable directly as a virtual address.

    What is virtual address and physical address?

    – CPU will generate logical address for eg: 346 – MMU will generate a relocation register (base register) for eg: 14000 – In memory, the physical address is located eg: (346+14000= 14346)

    How to increase virtual memory on Linux?

    View the current huge pages value:#cat/proc/meminfo|grep Huge AnonHugePages: 2048 kB HugePages_Total: 0 HugePages_Free: 0 HugePages_Rsvd: 0 HugePages_Surp: 0 Hugepagesize: 2048 kB

  • Huge pages are set in increments of 2MB.
  • Mount the huge pages:#mount -t hugetlbfs hugetlbfs/dev/hugepages