How is conjunctival melanosis treated?
It can be found in children and adults and typically occurs on only one eye. Conjunctival PAM is often precancerous and leads to life-threatening malignant melanoma. Conjunctival PAM should be treated with surgery, cryotherapy, or sometimes chemotherapy eye-drops to eradicate it before melanoma develops.
Is conjunctival nevus cancerous?
Typically, conjunctival nevi are benign, pigmented, slightly elevated conjunctival lesions that appear in the interpalpebral bulbar conjunctiva close to the limbus during the first 2 decades of life. They have a low rate of malignancy in terms of conversion to conjunctival melanomas.
Does conjunctiva have melanocytes?
Melanocytes are cells of neural crest origin that migrate to mucus membranes, including the conjunctiva, and to the skin during embryogenesis (1). They reside in the basal layers of the conjunctival epithelium near the basement membrane. Conjunctival melanocytes closely resemble the dendritic melanocytes of the skin.
What causes conjunctival melanosis?
Conjunctival melanosis – External and Internal Eye It is seen mostly in middle-aged, fair-skinned, and older, white patients. It is caused by the proliferation of atypical melanocytes in the epithelium that do not invade the subepithelial tissue unless there has been malignant transformation.
What is PAM with atypia?
PAM without atypia was defined as pigmentation of the conjunctival epithelium with or without benign melanocytic hyperplasia. PAM with atypia was characterized by the presence of atypical melanocytic hyperplasia. PAM with mild atypia was defined as atypical melanocytes confined to the basal layer of the epithelium.
What produces conjunctiva?
Function. The conjunctiva helps lubricate the eye by producing mucus and tears, although a smaller volume of tears than the lacrimal gland. It also contributes to immune surveillance and helps to prevent the entrance of microbes into the eye.
What is conjunctival papilloma?
Conjunctival papilloma is an acquired benign squamous cell tumor that can present at any age, but most frequently in the third and fourth decades of life. Papillomas have been associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, usually types 6 and 11.
Why is there a brown spot on my eye?
There can be a nevus or eye freckle on any part of your eye. This is kind of like a mole on your skin and is not harmful. Also, African Americans sometimes have brown spots on their eye simply because of high amounts of melanin, a dark brown pigment in their body.
What are melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva of the eye?
Context: Melanocytic proliferations are among the most common neoplasms of the conjunctiva. They often represent challenging lesions for pathologists unfamiliar with unique histologic features of melanocytic proliferations in this location and with nomenclature used by ophthalmologists.
What is the most common melanocytic conjunctival tumor?
Conjunctival nevi are the most common melanocytic conjunctival tumors. They are more common in Caucasians and appear within the first two decades of life. They are typically located in the interpalpebral conjunctiva near the limbus and rarely involve the cornea.
What is the histologic diagnosis of conjunctival malignant melanoma?
Histologic diagnosis. A conjunctival malignant melanoma shows invasion of melanoma cells into the subepithelial layers. The cells exhibit the above named signs of atypia. Remnants of PAM or nevus may be found in or contiguous to the melanoma. There are some lesions that cannot be unequivocally assigned to a nevus, PAM, melanoma.
What is a junctional melanocytic tumor?
Conjunctival melanocytic tumors comprise benign and malignant neoplasms. Nevi are congenital benign melanocytic tumors that can be further classified into junctional, subepithelial, compound, and blue nevus as well as congenital melanocytosis.